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Comprehensive Guide for getting into Home Recording

I'm going to borrow from a few sources and do my best to make this cohesive, but this question comes up a lot. I thought we had a comprehensive guide, but it doesn't appear so. In the absence of this, I feel that a lot of you could use a simple place to go for some basics on recording. There are a couple of great resources online already on some drumming forums, but I don't think they will be around forever.
Some background on myself - I have been drumming a long time. During that time, home recording has gone from using a cassette deck to having a full blown studio at your finger tips. The technology in the last 15 years has gotten so good it really is incredible. When I was trying to decide what I wanted to do with my life, I decided to go to school for audio engineering in a world-class studio. During this time I had access to the studio and was able to assist with engineering on several projects. This was awesome, and I came out with a working knowledge of SIGNAL CHAIN, how audio works in the digital realm, how microphones work, studio design, etc. Can I answer your questions? Yes.

First up: Signal Chain! This is the basic building block of recording. Ever seen a "I have this plugged in but am getting no sound!" thread? Yeah, signal chain.

A "Signal Chain" is the path your audio follows, from sound source, to the recording device, and back out of your monitors (speakers to you normies).
A typical complete signal chain might go something like this:
1] instrument/sound source 2] Microphone/TransducePickup 3] Cable 4] Mic Preamp/DI Box 5] Analog-to-Digital Converter 6] Digital transmission medium[digital data get recoded for usb or FW transfer] 7] Digital recording Device 8] DSP and Digital summing/playback engine 9] Digital-to-Analog Converter 10] Analog output stage[line outputs and output gain/volume control] 11] Monitors/Playback device[headphones/other transducers]
Important Terms, Definitions, and explanations (this will be where the "core" information is):
1] AD Conversion: the process by which the electrical signal is "converted" to a stream of digital code[binary, 1 and 0]. This is accomplished, basically, by taking digital pictures of the audio...and this is known as the "sampling rate/frequency" The number of "pictures" determines the frequency. So the CD standard of 44.1k is 44,100 "pictures" per second of digital code that represents the electrical "wave" of audio. It should be noted that in order to reproduce a frequency accuratly, the sampling rate must be TWICE that of the desired frequency (See: Nyquist-Shannon Theorem). So, a 44.1 digital audio device can, in fact, only record frequencies as high as 22.05khz, and in the real world, the actual upper frequency limit is lower, because the AD device employs a LOW-PASS filter to protect the circuitry from distortion and digital errors called "ALIASING." Confused yet? Don't worry, there's more... We haven't even talked about Bit depth! There are 2 settings for recording digitally: Sample Rate and Bit Depth. Sample rate, as stated above, determines the frequencies captured, however bit depth is used to get a better picture of the sample. Higher bit depth = more accurate sound wave representation. More on this here. Generally speaking, I record at 92KHz/24 bit depth. This makes huge files, but gets really accurate audio. Why does it make huge files? Well, if you are sampling 92,000 times per second, you are taking each sample and applying 24 bits to that, multiply it out and you get 92,000*24 = 2,208,000 bits per second or roughly 0.26MB per second for ONE TRACK. If that track is 5 minutes long, that is a file that is 78.96MB in size. Now lets say you used 8 inputs on an interface, that is, in total, 631.7MB of data. Wow, that escalates quick, right? There is something else to note as well here: Your CPU has to calculate this. So the amount of calculations it needs to perform for this same scenario is ~17.7 million calculations PER SECOND. This is why CPU speed and RAM is super important when recording digitally.
2] DA conversion: the process by which the digital code (the computer representation of a sound wave) is transformed back into electrcal energy in the proper shape. In a oversimplified explanation, the code is measured and the output of the convertor reflects the value of the code by changing voltage. Think of a sound wave on a grid: Frequency would represent the X axis (the horizontal axis)... but there is a vertical axis too. This is called AMPLITUDE or how much energy the wave is generating. People refer to this as how 'loud' a sound is, but that's not entirely correct. You can have a high amplitude wave that is played at a quiet volume. It's important to distinguish the two. How loud a sound is can be controlled by the volume on a speaker or transducer. But that has no impact on how much amplitude the sound wave has in the digital space or "in the wire" on its way to the transducer. So don't get hung up on how "loud" a waveform is, it is how much amplitude it has when talking about it "in the box" or before it gets to the speakeheadphone/whatever.
3] Cables: An often overlooked expense and tool, cables can in fact, make or break your recording. The multitudes of types of cable are determined by the connector, the gauge(thickness), shielding, type of conductor, etc... Just some bullet points on cables:
- Always get the highest quality cabling you can afford. Low quality cables often employ shielding that doesnt efectively protect against AC hums(60 cycle hum), RF interference (causing your cable to act as a gigantic AM/CB radio antenna), or grounding noise introduced by other components in your system. - The way cables are coiled and treated can determine their lifespan and effectiveness. A kinked cable can mean a broken shield, again, causing noise problems. - The standard in the USA for wiring an XLR(standard microphone) cable is: PIN 1= Cold/-, PIN 2= Hot/+, PIN 3=Ground/shield. Pin 3 carries phantom power, so it is important that the shield of your cables be intact and in good condition if you want to use your mic cables without any problems. - Cables for LINE LEVEL and HI-Z(instrument level) gear are not the same! - Line Level Gear, weather professional or consumer, should generally be used with balanced cables (on a 1/4" connector, it will have 3 sections and is commonly known as TRS -or- TipRingSleeve). A balanced 1/4" is essentially the same as a microphone cable, and in fact, most Professional gear with balanced line inputs and outputs will have XLR connectors instead of 1/4" connectors. - Hi-Z cable for instruments (guitars, basses, keyboards, or anything with a pickup) is UNBALANCED, and should be so. The introduction of a balanced cable can cause electricity to be sent backwards into a guitar and shock the guitar player. You may want this to happen, but your gear doesn't. There is some danger here as well, especially on stage, where the voltage CAN BE LETHAL. When running a guitabass/keyboard "Direct" into your interface, soundcard, or recording device, you should ALWAYS use a "DIRECT BOX", which uses a transformer to isolate and balance the the signal or you can use any input on the interface designated as a "Instrument" or "Hi-Z" input. It also changes some electrical properties, resulting in a LINE LEVEL output (it amplifies it from instrument level to line level).
4] Digital Data Transmissions: This includes S/PDIF, AES/EBU, ADAT, MADI. I'm gonna give a brief overview of this stuff, since its unlikely that alot of you will ever really have to think about it: - SDPIF= Sony Phillips Digital Interface Format. using RCA or TOSLINK connectors, this is a digital protocol that carries 3 streams of information. Digital audio Left, Digital Audio Right, and CLOCK. SPDIF generally supports 48khz/20bit information, though some modern devices can support up to 24bits, and up to 88.2khz. SPDIF is the consumer format of AES/EBU - AES/EBU= Audio Engineering Society/European Breadcasters Union Digital protocol uses a special type of cable often terminated with XLR connectors to transmit 2 channels of Digital Audio. AES/EBU is found mostly on expensive professional digital gear. - ADAT= the Alesis Digital Audio Tape was introduced in 1991, and was the first casette based system capable of recording 8 channels of digital audio onto a single cartridge(a SUPER-VHS tape, same one used by high quality VCR's). Enough of the history, its not so important because we are talking about ADAT-LIGHTPIPE Protocol, which is a digital transmission protocol that uses fiberoptic cable and devices to send up to 8 channels of digital audio simultaneously and in sync. ADAT-Lightpipe supports up to 48khz sample rates. This is how people expand the number of inputs by chaining interfaces. - MADI is something you will almost never encounter. It is a protocol that allows up to 64 channels of digital audio to be transmitted over a single cable that is terminated by BNC connectors. Im just telling you it exists so in case you ever encounter a digital snake that doesnt use Gigabit Ethernet, you will know whats going on.
digital transmission specs: SPDIF -> clock->2Ch->RCA cable(consumer) ADAT-Lightpipe->clock->8Ch->Toslink(semi-pro) SPDIF-OPTICAL->clock->2Ch->Toslink(consumer) AES/EBU->clock->2Ch->XLR(Pro) TDIF->clock->8Ch->DSub(Semi-Pro) ______________ MADI->no clock->64Ch->BNC{rare except in large scale pofessional apps} SDIF-II->no clock->24Ch->DSub{rare!} AES/EBU-13->no clock->24Ch->DSub
5] MICROPHONES: There are many types of microphones, and several names for each type. The type of microphone doesn't equate to the polar pattern of the microphone. There are a few common polar patterns in microphones, but there are also several more that are less common. These are the main types- Omni-Directional, Figure 8 (bi-directional), Cardioid, Super Cardioid, Hyper Cardioid, Shotgun. Some light reading.... Now for the types of microphones: - Dynamic Microphones utilize polarized magnets to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy. there are 2 types of dynamic microphones: 1) Moving Coil microphones are the most common type of microphone made. They are also durable, and capable of handling VERY HIGH SPL (sound pressure levels). 2) Ribbon microphones are rare except in professional recording studios. Ribbon microphones are also incredibly fragile. NEVER EVER USE PHANTOM POWER WITH A RIBBON MICROPHONE, IT WILL DIE (unless it specifically requires it, but I've only ever seen this on one Ribbon microphone ever). Sometimes it might even smoke or shoot out a few sparks; applying phantom power to a Ribbon Microphone will literally cause the ribbon, which is normally made from Aluminum, to MELT. Also, windblasts and plosives can rip the ribbon, so these microphones are not suitible for things like horns, woodwinds, vocals, kick drums, or anything that "pushes air." There have been some advances in Ribbon microphones and they are getting to be more common, but they are still super fragile and you have to READ THE MANUAL CAREFULLY to avoid a $1k+ mistake. - CondenseCapacitor Microphones use an electrostatic charge to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy. The movement of the diaphragm(often metal coated mylar) toward a ceramic "backplate" causes a fluctuation in the charge, which is then amplified inside the microphone and output as an electrical signal. Condenser microphones usually use phantom power to charge the capacitors' and backplate in order to maintain the electrostatic charge. There are several types of condenser microphones: 1) Tube Condenser Microphones: historically, this type of microphone has been used in studios since the 1940s, and has been refined and redesigned hundreds, if not thousands of times. Some of the "best sounding" and most desired microphones EVER MADE are Tube Condenser microphones from the 50's and 60's. These vintage microphones, in good condition, with the original TUBES can sell for hundreds of thousands of dollars. Tube mics are known for sounding "full", "warm", and having a particular character, depending on the exact microphone. No 2 tubes mics, even of the same model, will sound the same. Similar, but not the same. Tube mics have their own power supplies, which are not interchangeable to different models. Each tube mic is a different design, and therefore, has different power requirements. 2) FET Condenser microphones: FET stands for "Field Effect Transistor" and the technology allowed condenser microphones to be miniturized. Take for example, the SHURE beta98s/d, which is a minicondenser microphone. FET technology is generally more transparant than tube technology, but can sometimes sound "harsh" or "sterile". 3) Electret Condenser Microphones are a condenser microphone that has a permanent charge, and therefore, does not require phantom power; however, the charge is not truly permanent, and these mics often use AA or 9V batteries, either inside the mic, or on a beltpack. These are less common.
Other important things to know about microphones:
- Pads, Rolloffs, etc: Some mics have switches or rotating collars that notate certain things. Most commonly, high pass filters/lowcut filters, or attenuation pads. 1) A HP/LC Filter does exactly what you might think: Removes low frequency content from the signal at a set frequency and slope. Some microphones allow you to switch the rolloff frequency. Common rolloff frequencies are 75hz, 80hz, 100hz, 120hz, 125hz, and 250hz. 2) A pad in this example is a switch that lowers the output of the microphone directly after the capsule to prevent overloading the input of a microphone preamplifier. You might be asking: How is that possible? Some microphones put out a VERY HIGH SIGNAL LEVEL, sometimes about line level(-10/+4dbu), mic level is generally accepted to start at -75dbu and continues increasing until it becomes line level in voltage. It should be noted that linel level signals are normally of a different impedance than mic level signals, which is determined by the gear. An example for this would be: I mic the top of a snare drum with a large diaphragm condenser mic (solid state mic, not tube) that is capable of handling very high SPLs (sound pressure levels). When the snare drum is played, the input of the mic preamp clips (distorts), even with the gain turned all the way down. To combat this, I would use a pad with enough attenuation to lower the signal into the proper range of input (-60db to -40 db). In general, it is accepted to use a pad with only as much attentuation as you need, plus a small margin of error for extra “headroom”. What this means is that if you use a 20db pad where you only need a 10db pad, you will then have to add an additional 10db of gain to achieve a desireable signal level. This can cause problems, as not all pads sound good, or even transparent, and can color and affect your signal in sometimes unwanted ways that are best left unamplified. - Other mic tips/info: 1) when recording vocals, you should always use a popfilter. A pop filter mounted on a gooseneck is generally more effective than a windscreen made of foam that slips over the microphone. The foam type often kill the highfrequency response, alter the polar pattern, and can introduce non-linear polarity problems(part of the frequency spectrum will be out of phase.) If you don't have a pop filter or don't want to spend on one, buy or obtain a hoop of some kind, buy some cheap panty-hose and stretch it over the hoop to build your own pop filter. 2) Terms Related to mics: - Plosives: “B”, “D”, “F”, “G”, “J”, “P”, “T” hard consonants and other vocal sounds that cause windblasts. These are responsible for a low frequency pop that can severly distort the diaphragm of the microphone, or cause a strange inconsistency of tonality by causing a short term proximity effect.
- Proximity effect: An exponential increase in low frequency response causes by having a microphone excessivly close to a sound. This can be cause by either the force of the air moving actually causes the microphone’s diaphragm to move and sometimes distort, usually on vocalists or buy the buildup of low frequency soundwaves due to off-axis cancellation ports. You cannot get proximity effect on an omnidirectional microphone. With some practice, you can use proximity effect to your advantage, or as an effect. For example, if you are recording someone whispering and it sounds thin or weak and irritating due to the intenese high mid and high frequency content, get the person very close to a cardioid microphone with two popfilters, back to back approx 1/2”-1” away from the mic and set your gain carefully, and you can achieve a very intimite recording of whispering. In a different scenario, you can place a mic inside of a kick drum between 1”-3” away from the inner shell, angled up and at the point of impact, and towards the floor tom. This usually captures a huge low end, and the sympathetic vibration of the floor tom on the kick drum hits, but retains a clarity of attack without being distorted by the SPL of the drum and without capturing unplesant low-mid resonation of the kick drum head and shell that is common directly in the middle of the shell.
6) Wave Envelope: The envelope is the graphical representation of a sound wave commonly found in a DAW. There are 4 parts to this: Attack, Decay, Sustain, Release: 1) Attack is how quickly the sound reaches its peak amplitude; 2) Decay is the time it takes to reach the sustain level; 3) Sustain how long a sound remains at a certain level (think of striking a tom, the initial smack is attack, then it decays to the resonance of the tom, how long it resonates is the sustain); 4) Release is the amount of time before the sustain stops. This is particularly important as these are also the settings on a common piece of gear called a Compressor! Understanding the envelope of a sound is key to learning how to maniuplate it.
7) Phase Cancellation: This is one of the most important concepts in home recording, especially when looking at drums. I'm putting it in this section because it matters so much. Phase Cancellation is what occurs when the same frequencies occur at different times. To put it simply, frequency amplitudes are additive - meaning if you have 2 sound waves of the same frequency, one amplitude is +4 and the other is +2, the way we percieve sound is that the frequency is +6. But a sound wave has a positive and negative amplitude as it travels (like a wave in the ocean with a peak and a swell). If the frequency then has two sources and it is 180 degrees out of phase, that means one wave is at +4 while the other is at -4. This sums to 0, or cancels out the wave. Effectively, you would hear silence. This is why micing techniques are so important, but we'll get into that later. I wanted this term at the top, and will likely mention it again.

Next we can look at the different types of options to actually record your sound!

1) Handheld/All in one/Field Recorders: I don't know if portable cassette tape recorders are still around, but that's an example of one. These are (or used to) be very popular with journalists because they were pretty decent at capturing speech. They do not fare too well with music though. Not too long ago, we saw the emergence of the digital field recorder. These are really nifty little devices. They come in many shapes, sizes and colors, and can be very affordable. They run on batteries, and have built-in microphones, and record digitally onto SD cards or harddiscs. The more simple ones have a pair of built-in condenser microphones, which may or may not be adjustable, and record onto an SD-card. They start around $99 (or less if you don't mind buying refurbished). You turn it on, record, connect the device itself or the SD card to your computer, transfer the file(s) and there is your recording! An entry-level example is the Tascam DR-05. It costs $99. It has two built in omni-directional mics, comes with a 2GB microSD card and runs on two AA batteries. It can record in different formats, the highest being 24-bit 96KHz Broadcast WAV, which is higher than DVD quality! You can also choose to record as an MP3 (32-320kbps) if you need to save space on the SD card or if you're simply going to record a speech/conference or upload it on the web later on. It's got a headphone jack and even small built-in speakers. It can be mounted onto a tripod. And it's about the size of a cell phone. The next step up (although there are of course many options that are price and feature-wise inbetween this one and the last) is a beefier device like the Zoom H4n. It's got all the same features as the Tascam DR-05 and more! It has two adjustable built-in cardioid condenser mics in an XY configuration (you can adjust the angle from a 90-120 degree spread). On the bottom of the device, there are two XLR inputs with preamps. With those, you can expand your recording possibilities with two external microphones. The preamps can send phantom power, so you can even use very nice studio mics. All 4 channels will be recorded independantly, so you can pop them onto your computer later and mix them with software. This device can also act as a USB interface, so instead of just using it as a field recorder, you can connect it directly to your computer or to a DSLR camera for HD filming. My new recommendation for this category is actually the Yamaha EAD10. It really is the best all-in-one solution for anyone that wants to record their kit audio with a great sound. It sports a kick drum trigger (mounts to the rim of the kick) with an x-y pattern set of microphones to pick up the rest of the kit sound. It also has on-board effects, lots of software integration options and smart features through its app. It really is a great solution for anyone who wants to record without reading this guide.
The TL;DR of this guide is - if it seems like too much, buy the Yamaha EAD10 as a simple but effective recording solution for your kit.

2) USB Microphones: There are actually mics that you an plug in directly to your computer via USB. The mics themselves are their own audio interfaces. These mics come in many shapes and sizes, and offer affordable solutions for basic home recording. You can record using a DAW or even something simple like the stock windows sound recorder program that's in the acessories folder of my Windows operating system. The Blue Snowflake is very affordable at $59. It can stand alone or you can attach it to your laptop or your flat screen monitor. It can record up to 44.1kHz, 16-bit WAV audio, which is CD quality. It's a condenser mic with a directional cardioid pickup pattern and has a full frequency response - from 35Hz-20kHz. It probably won't blow you away, but it's a big departure from your average built-in laptop, webcam, headset or desktop microphone. The Audio Technica AT2020 USB is a USB version of their popular AT2020 condenser microphone. At $100 it costs a little more than the regular version. The AT2020 is one of the finest mics in its price range. It's got a very clear sound and it can handle loud volumes. Other companies like Shure and Samson also offer USB versions of some of their studio mics. The AT2020 USB also records up to CD-quality audio and comes with a little desktop tripod. The MXL USB.009 mic is an all-out USB microphone. It features a 1 inch large-diaphragm condenser capsule and can record up to 24-bit 96kHz WAV audio. You can plug your headphones right into the mic (remember, it is its own audio interface) so you can monitor your recordings with no latency, as opposed to doing so with your computer. Switches on the mic control the gain and can blend the mic channel with playback audio. Cost: $399. If you already have a mic, or you don't want to be stuck with just a USB mic, you can purcase a USB converter for your existing microphone. Here is a great review of four of them.
3) Audio Recording Interfaces: You've done some reading up on this stuff... now you are lost. Welcome to the wide, wide world of Audio Interfaces. These come in all different shapes and sizes, features, sampling rates, bit depths, inputs, outputs, you name it. Welcome to the ocean, let's try to help you find land.
- An audio interface, as far as your computer is concerned, is an external sound card. It has audio inputs, such as a microphone preamp and outputs which connect to other audio devices or to headphones or speakers. The modern day recording "rig" is based around a computer, and to get the sound onto your computer, an interface is necessary. All computers have a sound card of some sort, but these have very low quality A/D Converters (analog to digital) and were not designed with any kind of sophisticated audio recording in mind, so for us they are useless and a dedicated audio interface must come into play.
- There are hundreds of interfaces out there. Most commonly they connect to a computer via USB or Firewire. There are also PCI and PCI Express-based interfaces for desktop computers. The most simple interfaces can record one channel via USB, while others can record up to 30 via firewire! All of the connection types into the computer have their advantages and drawbacks. The chances are, you are looking at USB, Firewire, or Thunderbolt. As far as speeds, most interfaces are in the same realm as far as speed is concerned but thunderbolt is a faster data transfer rate. There are some differences in terms of CPU load. Conflict handling (when packages collide) is handled differently. USB sends conflict resolution to the CPU, Firewire handles it internally, Thunderbolt, from what I could find, sends it to the CPU as well. For most applications, none of them are going to be superior from a home-recording standpoint. When you get up to 16/24 channels in/out simultaneously, it's going to matter a lot more.
- There are a number of things to consider when choosing an audio interface. First off your budget, number of channels you'd like to be able to record simultaneously, your monitoring system, your computer and operating system and your applications. Regarding budget, you have to get real. $500 is not going to get you a rig with the ability to multi-track a drum set covered in mics. Not even close! You might get an interface with 8 channels for that much, but you have to factor in the cost of everything, including mics, cables, stands, monitors/headphones, software, etc... Considerations: Stereo Recording or Multi-Track Recording? Stereo Recording is recording two tracks: A left and right channel, which reflects most audio playback systems. This doesn't necessarily mean you are simply recording with two mics, it means that what your rig is recording onto your computer is a single stereo track. You could be recording a 5-piece band with 16 mics/channels, but if you're recording in stereo, all you're getting is a summation of those 16 tracks. This means that in your recording software, you won't be able to manipulate any of those channels independantly after you recorded them. If the rack tom mic wasn't turned up loud enough, or you want to mute the guitars, you can't do that, because all you have is a stereo track of everything. It's up to you to get your levels and balance and tone right before you hit record. If you are only using two mics or lines, then you will have individual control over each mic/line after recording. Commonly, you can find 2 input interfaces and use a sub-mixer taking the left/right outputs and pluging those into each channel of the interface. Some mixers will output a stereo pair into a computer as an interface, such as the Allen&Heath ZED16. If you want full control over every single input, you need to multi-track. Each mic or line that you are recording with will get it's own track in your DAW software, which you can edit and process after the fact. This gives you a lot of control over a recording, and opens up many mixing options, and also many more issues. Interfaces that facilitate multitracking include Presonus FireStudio, Focusrite Scarlett interfaces, etc. There are some mixers that are also interfaces, such as the Presonus StudioLive 16, but these are very expensive. There are core-card interfaces as well, these will plug in directly to your motherboard via PCI or PCI-Express slots. Protools HD is a core-card interface and requires more hardware than just the card to work. I would recommend steering clear of these until you have a firm grasp of signal chain and digital audio, as there are more affordable solutions that will yield similar results in a home-environment.

DAW - Digital Audio Workstation

I've talked a lot about theory, hardware, signal chain, etc... but we need a way to interpret this data. First off what does a DAW do? Some refer to them as DAE's (Digital Audio Editors). You could call it a virtual mixing board , however that isn't entirely correct. DAWs allow you to record, control, mix and manipulate independant audio signals. You can change their volume, add effects, splice and dice tracks, combine recorded audio with MIDI-generated audio, record MIDI tracks and much much more. In the old days, when studios were based around large consoles, the actual audio needed to be recorded onto some kind of medium - analog tape. The audio signals passed through the boards, and were printed onto the tape, and the tape decks were used to play back the audio, and any cutting, overdubbing etc. had to be done physically on the tape. With a DAW, your audio is converted into 1's and 0's through the converters on your interface when you record, and so computers and their harddiscs have largely taken the place of reel-to-reel machines and analog tape.
Here is a list of commonly used DAWs in alphabetical order: ACID Pro Apple Logic Cakewalk SONAR Digital Performer FL (Fruity Loops) Studio (only versions 8 and higher can actually record Audio I believe) GarageBand PreSonus Studio One Pro Tools REAPER Propellerhead Reason (version 6 has combined Reason and Record into one software, so it now is a full audio DAW. Earlier versions of Reason are MIDI based and don't record audio) Propellerhead Record (see above) Steinberg Cubase Steinberg Nuendo
There are of course many more, but these are the main contenders. [Note that not all DAWs actually have audio recording capabilities (All the ones I listed do, because this thread is about audio recording), because many of them are designed for applications like MIDI composing, looping, etc. Some are relatively new, others have been around for a while, and have undergone many updates and transformations. Most have different versions, that cater to different types of recording communities, such as home recording/consumer or professional.
That's a whole lot of choices. You have to do a lot of research to understand what each one offers, what limitations they may have etc... Logic, Garageband and Digital Performer for instance are Mac-only. ACID Pro, FL Studio and SONAR will only run on Windows machines. Garageband is free and is even pre-installed on every Mac computer. Most other DAWs cost something.
Reaper is a standout. A non-commercial license only costs $60. Other DAWs often come bundled with interfaces, such as ProTools MP with M-Audio interfaces, Steinberg Cubase LE with Lexicon Interfaces, Studio One with Presonus Interfaces etc. Reaper is a full function, professional, affordable DAW with a tremendous community behind it. It's my recommendation for everyone, and comes with a free trial. It is universally compatible and not hardware-bound.
You of course don't have to purchase a bundle. Your research might yield that a particular interface will suit your needs well, but the software that the same company offers or even bundles isn't that hot. As a consumer you have a plethora of software and hardware manufacturers competing for your business and there is no shortage of choice. One thing to think about though is compatability and customer support. With some exceptions, technically you can run most DAWs with most interfaces. But again, don't just assume this, do your research! Also, some DAWs will run smoother on certain interfaces, and might experience problems on others. It's not a bad thing to assume that if you purchase the software and hardware from the same company, they're at least somewhat optimized for eachother. In fact, ProTools, until recently would only run on Digidesign (now AVID) and M-Audio interfaces. While many folks didn't like being limited to their hardware choices to run ProTools, a lot of users didn't mind, because I think that at least in part it made ProTools run smoother for everyone, and if you did have a problem, you only had to call up one company. There are many documented cases where consumers with software and hardware from different companies get the runaround:
Software Company X: "It's a hardware issue, call Hardware Company Z". Hardware Company Z: "It's a software issue, call Software Company X".
Another thing to research is the different versions of softwares. Many of them have different versions at different pricepoints, such as entry-level or student versions all the way up to versions catering to the pros. Cheaper versions come with limitations, whether it be a maximum number of audio tracks you can run simultaneously, plug-ins available or supported Plug-In formats and lack of other features that the upper versions have. Some Pro versions might require you to run certain kinds of hardware. I don't have time nor the will to do research on individual DAW's, so if any of you want to make a comparison of different versions of a specific DAW, be my guest! In the end, like I keep stressing - we each have to do our own research.
A big thing about the DAW that it is important to note is this: Your signal chain is your DAW. It is the digital representation of that chain and it is important to understand it in order to properly use that DAW. It is how you route the signal from one spot to another, how you move it through a sidechain compressor or bus the drums into the main fader. It is a digital representation of a large-format recording console, and if you don't understand how the signal gets from the sound source to your monitor (speaker), you're going to have a bad time.

Playback - Monitors are not just for looking at!

I've mentioned monitors several times and wanted to touch on these quickly: Monitors are whatever you are using to listen to the sound. These can be headphones, powered speakers, unpowered speakers, etc. The key thing here is that they are accurate. You want a good depth of field, you want as wide a frequency response as you can get, and you want NEARFIELD monitors. Unless you are working with a space that can put the monitor 8' away from you, 6" is really the biggest speaker size you need. At that point, nearfield monitors will reproduce the audio frequency range faithfully for you. There are many options here, closed back headphones, open back headphones, studio monitors powered, and unpowered (require a separate poweramp to drive the monitor). For headphones, I recommend AKG K271, K872, Sennheiser HD280 Pro, etc. There are many options, but if mixing on headphones I recommend spending some good money on a set. For Powered Monitors, there's really only one choice I recommend: Kali Audio LP-6 monitors. They are, dollar for dollar, the best monitors you can buy for a home studio, period. These things contend with Genelecs and cost a quarter of the price. Yes, they still cost a bit, but if you're going to invest, invest wisely. I don't recommend unpowered monitors, as if you skimp on the poweramp they lose all the advantages you gain with monitors. Just get the powered monitors if you are opting for not headphones.

Drum Mic'ing Guide, I'm not going to re-create the wheel.


That's all for now, this has taken some time to put together (a couple hourse now). I can answer other questions as they pop up. I used a few sources for the information, most notably some well-put together sections on the Pearl Drummers Forum in the recording section. I know a couple of the users are no longer active there, but if you see this and think "Hey, he ripped me off!", you're right, and thanks for allowing me to rip you off!

A couple other tips that I've come across for home recording:
You need to manage your gain/levels when recording. Digital is NOT analog! What does this mean? You should be PEAKING (the loudest the signal gets) around -12dB to -15dB on your meters. Any hotter than that and you are overdriving your digital signal processors.
What sound level should my master bus be at for Youtube?
Bass Traps 101
Sound Proofing 101
submitted by M3lllvar to drums [link] [comments]

hero2lte (S7 Edge) LineageOS Error 7 on nightly (2018-04-10) upgrade

Last two nightly builds for hero2lte (2018-03-29 and 2018-04-10) downloaded via updater rather than manually have failed to install and the Error 7 is reported.
As per the FAQ I've checked and...
As requested in the FAQ the recovery log is below.
Any pointers or ideas on whats going on and how to resolve it would be very welcome.
__bionic_open_tzdata: couldn't find any tzdata when looking for localtime! __bionic_open_tzdata: couldn't find any tzdata when looking for GMT! __bionic_open_tzdata: couldn't find any tzdata when looking for posixrules! Starting TWRP 3.2.1-1-2af13795 on Wed Apr 11 05:47:08 2018 (pid 2897) TW_NO_REBOOT_BOOTLOADER := true RECOVERY_SDCARD_ON_DATA := true I:Lun file '/sys/devices/15400000.usb/15400000.dwc3/gadget/lun0/file' TW_HAS_DOWNLOAD_MODE := true TW_INCLUDE_CRYPTO := true I:TW_BRIGHTNESS_PATH := /sys/devices/13900000.dsim/backlight/panel/brightness I:Found brightness file at '/sys/devices/13900000.dsim/backlight/panel/brightness' I:TWFunc::Set_Brightness: Setting brightness control to 162 I:LANG: en Starting the UI... setting DRM_FORMAT_ABGR8888 and GGL_PIXEL_FORMAT_BGRA_8888, GGL_PIXEL_FORMAT may not match! cannot find/open a drm device: No such file or directory fb0 reports (possibly inaccurate): vi.bits_per_pixel = 32 vi.red.offset = 16 .length = 8 vi.green.offset = 8 .length = 8 vi.blue.offset = 0 .length = 8 setting GGL_PIXEL_FORMAT_BGRA_8888 double buffered framebuffer: 0 (1440 x 2560) Using fbdev graphics. I:TWFunc::Set_Brightness: Setting brightness control to 162 I:Loading package: splash (/twres/splash.xml) I:Load XML directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/splash.xml' directly I:Checking resolution... I:Scaling theme width 1.333333x and height 1.333333x, offsets x: 0 y: 0 w: 0 h: 0 I:Loading resources... I:Loading variables... I:Loading mouse cursor... I:Loading pages... I:Loading page splash I:Switching packages (splash) => Linking mtab => Processing recovery.fstab I:Reading /etc/recovery.fstab I:Processing '/boot' I:Processing '/recovery' I:Processing '/system' I:Processing '/data' I:Processing '/cache' I:Processing '/modem' I:Processing '/modem_debug' I:Processing '/efs' I:Created '/efs' folder. I:Processing '/external_sd' I:Created '/external_sd' folder. I:Processing '/usb-otg' I:Created '/usb-otg' folder. I:Processing '/misc' I:Done processing fstab files I:Setting up '/data' as data/media emulated storage. I:Created '/sdcard' folder. I:Can't probe device /dev/block/sda18 I:Unable to mount '/data' I:Actual block device: '/dev/block/sda18', current file system: 'ext4' I:Can't probe device /dev/block/sda18 I:Unable to mount '/data' I:Actual block device: '/dev/block/sda18', current file system: 'ext4' get_crypt_ftr_info crypto key location: 'footer' I:Backup folder set to '/data/media/TWRP/BACKUPS/ad07160328408551ce' I:Settings storage is '/data/media' Updating partition details... I:Unable to mount '/usb-otg' I:Actual block device: '', current file system: 'vfat' ...done Unable to mount storage I:Unmounting main partitions... Partition Logs: /boot | /dev/block/sda5 | Size: 40MB Flags: Can_Be_Backed_Up IsPresent Can_Flash_Img Primary_Block_Device: /dev/block/sda5 Display_Name: Boot Storage_Name: boot Backup_Path: /boot Backup_Name: boot Backup_Display_Name: Boot Storage_Path: /boot Current_File_System: emmc Fstab_File_System: emmc Backup_Method: dd /recovery | /dev/block/sda6 | Size: 46MB Flags: Can_Be_Backed_Up IsPresent Can_Flash_Img Primary_Block_Device: /dev/block/sda6 Display_Name: Recovery Storage_Name: recovery Backup_Path: /recovery Backup_Name: recovery Backup_Display_Name: Recovery Storage_Path: /recovery Current_File_System: emmc Fstab_File_System: emmc Backup_Method: dd /system | /dev/block/sda14 | Size: 4068MB Used: 1249MB Free: 2818MB Backup Size: 1249MB Flags: Can_Be_Mounted Can_Be_Wiped Can_Be_Backed_Up Wipe_Available_in_GUI IsPresent Mount_Read_Only Primary_Block_Device: /dev/block/sda14 Display_Name: System Storage_Name: System Backup_Path: /system Backup_Name: system Backup_Display_Name: System Storage_Path: /system Current_File_System: ext4 Fstab_File_System: ext4 Backup_Method: files /data | /dev/block/sda18 | Size: 0MB Flags: Can_Be_Wiped Can_Be_Backed_Up Wipe_During_Factory_Reset Wipe_Available_in_GUI IsPresent Can_Be_Encrypted Is_Encrypted Has_Data_Media Can_Encrypt_Backup Use_Userdata_Encryption Is_Storage Is_Settings_Storage Symlink_Path: /data/media Symlink_Mount_Point: /sdcard Primary_Block_Device: /dev/block/sda18 Length: -20480 Display_Name: data Storage_Name: Internal Storage Backup_Path: /data Backup_Name: data Backup_Display_Name: Data Storage_Path: /data/media Current_File_System: emmc Fstab_File_System: ext4 Backup_Method: dd MTP_Storage_ID: 65537 /cache | /dev/block/sda15 | Size: 192MB Used: 188MB Free: 4MB Backup Size: 188MB Flags: Can_Be_Mounted Can_Be_Wiped Can_Be_Backed_Up Wipe_During_Factory_Reset Wipe_Available_in_GUI IsPresent Primary_Block_Device: /dev/block/sda15 Display_Name: Cache Storage_Name: Cache Backup_Path: /cache Backup_Name: cache Backup_Display_Name: Cache Storage_Path: /cache Current_File_System: ext4 Fstab_File_System: ext4 Backup_Method: files /modem | /dev/block/sda8 | Size: 42MB Flags: Can_Be_Backed_Up Has_SubPartition IsPresent Primary_Block_Device: /dev/block/sda8 Display_Name: Baseband Storage_Name: Baseband Backup_Path: /modem Backup_Name: modem Backup_Display_Name: Baseband Storage_Path: /modem Current_File_System: emmc Fstab_File_System: emmc Backup_Method: dd /modem_debug | /dev/block/sda17 | Size: 5MB Flags: Can_Be_Backed_Up Is_SubPartition IsPresent SubPartition_Of: /modem Primary_Block_Device: /dev/block/sda17 Display_Name: Baseband (Debug) Storage_Name: Baseband (Debug) Backup_Path: /modem_debug Backup_Name: modem_debug Backup_Display_Name: Baseband (Debug) Storage_Path: /modem_debug Current_File_System: emmc Fstab_File_System: emmc Backup_Method: dd /efs | /dev/block/sda3 | Size: 15MB Used: 2MB Free: 12MB Backup Size: 2MB Flags: Can_Be_Mounted Can_Be_Wiped Can_Be_Backed_Up IsPresent Primary_Block_Device: /dev/block/sda3 Display_Name: EFS Storage_Name: EFS Backup_Path: /efs Backup_Name: efs Backup_Display_Name: EFS Storage_Path: /efs Current_File_System: ext4 Fstab_File_System: ext4 Backup_Method: files /external_sd | /dev/block/mmcblk0p1 | Size: 121910MB Used: 82387MB Free: 39522MB Backup Size: 82387MB Flags: Can_Be_Mounted Can_Be_Wiped Wipe_Available_in_GUI Removable IsPresent Is_Storage Primary_Block_Device: /dev/block/mmcblk0p1 Alternate_Block_Device: /dev/block/mmcblk0 Display_Name: Micro SDcard Storage_Name: Micro SDcard Backup_Path: /external_sd Backup_Name: external_sd Backup_Display_Name: Micro SDcard Storage_Path: /external_sd Current_File_System: exfat Fstab_File_System: vfat Backup_Method: files MTP_Storage_ID: 65538 /usb-otg | | Size: 0MB Used: 0MB Free: 0MB Backup Size: 0MB Flags: Can_Be_Mounted Can_Be_Wiped Wipe_Available_in_GUI Removable Is_Storage Primary_Block_Device: /dev/block/sde1 Alternate_Block_Device: /dev/block/sde Display_Name: USB-OTG Storage_Name: USB-OTG Backup_Path: /usb-otg Backup_Name: usb-otg Backup_Display_Name: USB-OTG Storage_Path: /usb-otg Current_File_System: vfat Fstab_File_System: vfat Backup_Method: files MTP_Storage_ID: 65539 /misc | /dev/block/sda7 | Size: 8MB Flags: IsPresent Primary_Block_Device: /dev/block/sda7 Display_Name: misc Storage_Name: misc Backup_Path: /misc Backup_Name: misc Backup_Display_Name: misc Storage_Path: /misc Current_File_System: emmc Fstab_File_System: emmc Backup_Method: dd I:Loading package: TWRP (/twres/ui.xml) I:Load XML directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/zh_TW.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/zh_CN.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/uk.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/tr.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/sv.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/sl.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/sk.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/ru.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/pt_BR.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/pl.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/nl.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/ja.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/it.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/hu.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/fr.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/es.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/en.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/el.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/de.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/cz.xml' directly I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/en.xml' directly parsing languageFile parsing languageFile done I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/ui.xml' directly I:Checking resolution... I:Scaling theme width 1.333333x and height 1.333333x, offsets x: 0 y: 0 w: 0 h: 0 I:Loading resources... I:Failed to load image from indeterminate013, error -1 I:Loading variables... I:Loading mouse cursor... I:Loading pages... I:Including file: /twres/portrait.xml... I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/portrait.xml' directly I:Loading resources... I:Loading variables... I:Loading mouse cursor... I:Loading pages... I:Loading page main I:Loading page main2 I:Loading page install I:Loading page flash_confirm I:Loading page flash_zip I:Loading page flash_done I:Loading page flash_sleep_and_reboot I:Loading page flashimage_confirm I:Loading page clear_vars I:Loading page reboot_system_routine I:Loading page confirm_action I:Loading page action_page I:Loading page singleaction_page I:Loading page action_complete I:Loading page filecheck I:Loading page rebootcheck I:Loading page appcheck I:Loading page wipe I:Loading page advancedwipe I:Loading page formatdata I:Loading page formatdata_confirm I:Loading page checkpartitionlist I:Loading page partitionoptions I:Loading page refreshfilesystem I:Loading page selectfilesystem I:Loading page backup I:Loading page backup_options I:Loading page backupname1 I:Loading page backupname2 I:Loading page backupencryption I:Loading page backupencryption2 I:Loading page checkbackuppassword I:Loading page backup_run I:Loading page restore I:Unable to open '/data/media/TWRP/BACKUPS/ad07160328408551ce' I:Loading page restore_read I:Loading page restore_decrypt I:Loading page try_restore_decrypt I:Loading page restore_select I:Loading page renamebackup I:Loading page restore_run I:Loading page mount I:Loading page usb_mount I:Loading page usb_umount I:Loading page system_readonly_check I:Loading page reboot I:Loading page rebootapp I:Loading page system_readonly I:Loading page settings I:Loading page settings_timezone I:Loading page settings_screen I:Loading page settings_vibration I:Loading page settings_language I:Loading page copylog I:Loading page advanced I:Loading page partsdcardsel I:Loading page partsdcardcheck I:Loading page partsdcard I:Loading page htcdumlock I:Loading page lock I:Loading page filemanagerlist I:Loading page filemanageroptions I:Loading page choosedestinationfolder I:Loading page filemanagerrenamefile I:Loading page filemanagerrenamefolder I:Loading page filemanagerchmod I:Loading page filemanagerconfirm I:Loading page filemanageraction I:Loading page decrypt I:Loading page decrypt_pattern I:Loading page trydecrypt I:Loading page terminalcommand I:Loading page sideload I:Loading page fixcontexts I:Loading page installsu I:Loading page slideout I:Loading page select_storage I:Loading page select_language I:Set page: 'decrypt_pattern' I:Switching packages (TWRP) Renaming regular /file_contexts -> /file_contexts.bak Moving /prebuilt_file_contexts -> /file_contexts SELinux contexts loaded from /file_contexts Full SELinux support is present. Startup Commands: ro.sf.lcd_density=560 ro.com.google.clientidbase=android-google ro.com.android.dataroaming=true ro.com.android.wifi-watchlist=GoogleGuest ro.sec.fle.encryption=true ro.url.legal=http://www.google.com/intl/%s/mobile/android/basic/phone-legal.html ro.arch=exynos8890 ro.boot.hw_rev=9 ro.boot.sec_atd.tty=/dev/ttySAC4 ro.boot.selinux=enforcing ro.boot.dram_rev=00000000 ro.boot.hardware=samsungexynos8890 ro.boot.serialno=ad07160328408551ce ro.boot.ucs_mode=0 ro.boot.bootdevice=155a0000.ufs ro.boot.bootloader=G935FXXS1DQHF ro.boot.fmp_config=0 ro.boot.debug_level=0x4f4c ro.boot.warranty_bit=1 ro.boot.emmc_checksum=3 ro.boot.hmac_mismatch=0 ro.boot.odin_download=1 ro.boot.security_mode=1526595585 ro.boot.boot_salescode= ro.omni.device=hero2lte ro.omni.version=6.0.1-20171231-hero2lte-HOMEMADE ro.twrp.boot=1 ro.twrp.version=3.2.1-1 ro.wifi.channels= ro.allow.mock.location=1 ro.board.platform=exynos5 ro.build.id=MOB30M ro.build.date=Sun Dec 31 16:43:16 UTC 2017 ro.build.date.utc=0 ro.build.host=740ef2dca990 ro.build.tags=test-keys ro.build.type=eng ro.build.user=jenkins ro.build.flavor=omni_hero2lte-eng ro.build.display.id=omni_hero2lte-eng 6.0.1 MOB30M 1 test-keys ro.build.version.sdk=23 ro.build.version.base_os= ro.build.version.release=6.0.1 ro.build.version.codename=REL ro.build.version.incremental=1 ro.build.version.preview_sdk=0 ro.build.version.all_codenames=REL ro.build.version.security_patch=2016-06-01 ro.build.characteristics=default ro.config.ringtone=Ring_Synth_04.ogg ro.config.alarm_alert=Argon.ogg ro.config.notification_sound=pixiedust.ogg ro.dalvik.vm.native.bridge=0 ro.kernel.android.checkjni=1 ro.secure=0 ro.zygote=zygote32 ro.carrier=unknown ro.product.cpu.abi=arm64-v8a ro.product.cpu.abilist=armeabi-v7a,armeabi ro.product.cpu.abilist32=armeabi-v7a,armeabi ro.product.cpu.abilist64= ro.product.name=hero2ltexx ro.product.board=universal8890 ro.product.brand=samsung ro.product.model=SM-G935F ro.product.device=hero2lte ro.product.locale=en-US ro.product.manufacturer=samsung ro.baseband=unknown ro.bootmode=unknown ro.chipname=exynos8890 ro.hardware=samsungexynos8890 ro.hardware.keystore=mdfpp ro.revision=0 ro.security.mdpp.ver=2.0 ro.security.mdpp.release=8 ro.serialno=ad07160328408551ce ro.bootimage.build.date=Sun Dec 31 16:46:33 UTC 2017 ro.bootimage.build.date.utc=1514738793 ro.bootimage.build.fingerprint=samsung/omni_hero2lte/hero2lte:6.0.1/MOB30M/1:eng/test-keys ro.bootloader=G935FXXS1DQHF ro.debuggable=1 ro.modversion=OmniROM-6.0.1-20171231-hero2lte-HOMEMADE ro.setupwizard.enterprise_mode=1 ro.lcd_brightness=162 ro.lcd_min_brightness=0 net.bt.name=Android net.change=net.bt.name sys.usb.state=mtp,adb sys.usb.config=mtp,adb init.svc.adbd=stopping init.svc.ueventd=running init.svc.recovery=running init.svc.set_permissive=stopped twrp.crash_counter=0 twrp.action_complete=0 debug.atrace.tags.enableflags=0 dalvik.vm.isa.arm.variant=cortex-a53 dalvik.vm.isa.arm.features=default dalvik.vm.isa.arm64.variant=cortex-a53 dalvik.vm.isa.arm64.features=default dalvik.vm.usejit=true dalvik.vm.lockprof.threshold=500 dalvik.vm.dex2oat-Xms=64m dalvik.vm.dex2oat-Xmx=512m dalvik.vm.dex2oat-filter=verify-at-runtime dalvik.vm.stack-trace-file=/data/antraces.txt dalvik.vm.image-dex2oat-Xms=64m dalvik.vm.image-dex2oat-Xmx=64m dalvik.vm.image-dex2oat-filter=verify-at-runtime persist.sys.usb.config=mtp,adb persist.sys.dalvik.vm.lib.2=libart persist.sys.root_access=1 service.adb.root=1 keyguard.no_require_sim=true security.mdpp=None security.mdpp.mass=skmm security.mdpp.result=None I:Copying file /cache/recovery/log to /cache/recovery/last_log I:Is encrypted, do decrypt page first I:Switching packages (TWRP) I:Set page: 'decrypt' I:Set page: 'decrypt_pattern' I:sdk version is 25 I:Set page: 'trydecrypt' I:operation_start: 'Decrypt' crypt_ftr->fs_size = 52821984 Using scrypt for cryptfs KDF Invalid hex string kdf failed failure decrypting master key Failed to decrypt master key crypt_ftr->fs_size = 52821984 Using scrypt for cryptfs KDF load_crypto_mapping_table: target_type = crypt load_crypto_mapping_table: real_blk_name = /dev/block/sda18, extra_params = I:Found no matching fstab entry for uevent device '/devices/virtual/block/dm-0' - add I:Found no matching fstab entry for uevent device '/devices/virtual/block/dm-0' - change Error temp mounting decrypted block device '/dev/block/dm-0' I:Found no matching fstab entry for uevent device '/devices/virtual/block/dm-0' - remove I:Found no matching fstab entry for uevent device '/devices/virtual/block/dm-0' - remove Failed to decrypt data. I:Set page: 'decrypt' I:Set page: 'decrypt_pattern' I:operation_end - status=1 I:sdk version is 25 I:Set page: 'trydecrypt' I:operation_start: 'Decrypt' crypt_ftr->fs_size = 52821984 Using scrypt for cryptfs KDF Invalid hex string kdf failed failure decrypting master key Failed to decrypt master key crypt_ftr->fs_size = 52821984 Using scrypt for cryptfs KDF load_crypto_mapping_table: target_type = crypt load_crypto_mapping_table: real_blk_name = /dev/block/sda18, extra_params = I:Found no matching fstab entry for uevent device '/devices/virtual/block/dm-0' - add I:Found no matching fstab entry for uevent device '/devices/virtual/block/dm-0' - change Password matches Data successfully decrypted, new block device: '/dev/block/dm-0' I:mount -o bind '/data/media' '/sdcard' process ended with RC=0 I:Backup folder set to '/data/media/0/TWRP/BACKUPS/ad07160328408551ce' Updating partition details... I:mount -o bind '/data/media/0' '/sdcard' process ended with RC=0 I:Data backup size is 8124MB, free: 14220MB. I:Unable to mount '/usb-otg' I:Actual block device: '', current file system: 'vfat' ...done I:mount -o bind '/data/media/0' '/sdcard' process ended with RC=0 /data | /dev/block/dm-0 | Size: 25259MB Used: 8124MB Free: 14220MB Backup Size: 8124MB Flags: Can_Be_Mounted Can_Be_Wiped Can_Be_Backed_Up Wipe_During_Factory_Reset Wipe_Available_in_GUI IsPresent Can_Be_Encrypted Is_Encrypted Is_Decrypted Has_Data_Media Can_Encrypt_Backup Use_Userdata_Encryption Is_Storage Is_Settings_Storage Symlink_Path: /data/media/0 Symlink_Mount_Point: /sdcard Primary_Block_Device: /dev/block/sda18 Decrypted_Block_Device: /dev/block/dm-0 Length: -20480 Display_Name: data Storage_Name: Internal Storage Backup_Path: /data Backup_Name: data Backup_Display_Name: Data Storage_Path: /data/media/0 Current_File_System: ext4 Fstab_File_System: ext4 Backup_Method: files MTP_Storage_ID: 65537 I:Unmounting main partitions... tw_get_context got selinux context: u:object_r:media_rw_data_file:s0 I:Got default contexts and file mode for storage files. I:Decrypt adopted storage starting I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/data/system/storage.xml' directly I:successfully loaded storage.xml I:Set page: 'main' I:Set page: 'clear_vars' I:Set page: 'main2' I:operation_end - status=0 I:Set page: 'main' I:Set page: 'clear_vars' I:Set page: 'main2' I:Switching packages (TWRP) I:Attempt to load settings from settings file... I:InfoManager loading from '/data/media/0/TWRP/.twrps'. I:Backup folder set to '/external_sd/TWRP/BACKUPS/ad07160328408551ce' I:DataManager::SetBackupFolder zip path was /data/lineageos_updates changing to /external_sd, /data I:Copying file /etc/recovery.fstab to /cache/recovery/recovery.fstab I:Version number saved to '/cache/recovery/.version' I:Unable to mount '/usb-otg' I:Actual block device: '', current file system: 'vfat' __bionic_open_tzdata: couldn't find any tzdata when looking for CST6CDT,M3.2.0,M11.1.0! __bionic_open_tzdata: couldn't find any tzdata when looking for posixrules! I:TWFunc::Set_Brightness: Setting brightness control to 162 I:PageManager::LoadFileToBuffer loading filename: '/twres/languages/en.xml' directly parsing languageFile parsing languageFile done I:Translating partition display names I:Backup folder set to '/external_sd/TWRP/BACKUPS/ad07160328408551ce' I:Starting MTP I:sending message to add 65537 '/data/media/0' 'Internal Storage' I:Message sent, add storage ID: 65537 '/data/media/0' I:sending message to add 65538 '/external_sd' 'Micro SD card' I:Message sent, add storage ID: 65538 '/external_sd' I:[MTP] Starting MTP MTP Enabled I:Check_Lifetime_Writes result: '326096' I:Switching packages (TWRP) I:Starting Adb Backup FIFO I:Set page: 'main' I:Set page: 'clear_vars' I:Set page: 'main2' I:[MTP] created new mtpserver object I:[MTP] MtpServer::run fd: 34 I:[MTP] mtppipe add storage 65537 '/data/media/0' I:[MTP] MtpStorage id: 65537 path: /data/media/0 I:[MTP] mtppipe add storage 65538 '/external_sd' I:[MTP] MtpStorage id: 65538 path: /external_sd I:Set page: 'install' I:Set page: 'flash_confirm' I:Set page: 'flash_zip' I:operation_start: 'Flashing' Installing zip file '/data/lineageos_updates/lineage-14.1-20180410-nightly-hero2lte-signed.zip' Checking for Digest file... Skipping Digest check: no Digest file found I:Update binary zip I:Zip does not contain SELinux file_contexts file in its root. I:has_legacy_properties: Found legacy property match! I:Legacy property environment initialized. Target: samsung/lineage_hero2lte/hero2lte:7.1.2/NJH47F/02dd22a9e1:userdebug/release-keys Target: samsung/lineage_hero2lte/hero2lte:7.1.2/NJH47F/02dd22a9e1:userdebug/release-keys detected filesystem ext4 for /dev/block/platform/155a0000.ufs/by-name/SYSTEM detected filesystem ext4 for /dev/block/platform/155a0000.ufs/by-name/SYSTEM about to run program [/tmp/install/bin/backuptool.sh] with 2 args grep: /tmp/gapps.prop: No such file or directory about to run program [/tmp/install/bin/otasigcheck.sh] with 1 args Patching system image unconditionally... performing update Patching system image unconditionally... blockimg version is 4 maximum stash entries 0 creating stash /cache/recovery/3c0d64daaa31692f1d849c09309817414481fc63/ script aborted: E1001: Failed to update system image. E1001: Failed to update system image. error: 1001 cause: 101 Updater process ended with ERROR: 7 I:Legacy property environment disabled. I:Install took 12 second(s). Error installing zip file '/data/lineageos_updates/lineage-14.1-20180410-nightly-hero2lte-signed.zip' Updating partition details... I:Data backup size is 8124MB, free: 14220MB. I:Unable to mount '/usb-otg' I:Actual block device: '', current file system: 'vfat' ...done I:Set page: 'flash_done' I:operation_end - status=1 I:Set overlay: 'slideout' I:Set overlay: '' I:Set page: 'clear_vars' I:Set page: 'main2' I:Set page: 'advanced' I:Set page: 'copylog' I:Set page: 'action_page' I:operation_start: 'Copy Log' I:Copying file /tmp/recovery.log to /external_sd/recovery.log 
submitted by enilkcals to LineageOS [link] [comments]

[Diving Deep] Vol. 1 - Tyro and FF3: Onions vs. the World!

Diving Deep is a series of posts exploring the Record Spheres system and its impact on the several characters of FFRK.
So the Onion Kids started out as sleepers - pretty good but definitely overshadowed by more popular entries in the franchise. This is caused by several factors: the relative obscurity of FF3 as a game; the mixed blessing of being DU characters; and having few events, and thus few chances at relics compared to heroes from 4-10 and 13. But they're a solid bunch, to be sure.
Tyro is, of course, the OmniKeeper, capable of doing anything with only passable stats; and the Onion Knight can do half of Tyro's tricks twice as well - at least once you level and RD him.
Let's explore, shall we?
Tyro
Triple broken: Yes (first wave) RD access: Feature-initial Native 5-star jobs: All Skill pool: All 5* Skill upgrades: None (all jobs 6)
Stats by Lv HP ATK DEF MAG RES MND SPD
Lv 80 5504 107 106 106 106 106 120
Lv 99 6800 131 130 130 130 130 130
RD mod 1145 25 28 24 11 11 -
Sphere cost Vit Spi Wis Dex Brv Spheres
3* 105 75 105 60 105 Warrior, Knight, Thief, Ranger, White, Black
4* 90 120 150 60 30 Paladin, Ninja, Devout, Magus, Spellblade, Sage
Passives: SPB+6%, BLK+9%, WHT (heal)+9%, Weakness hit +9%, sleep resist, silence resist. Allegro Sphere gives weakness hit +3% for Tyro.
OmniKeeper gets a relatively balanced RD with a healthy chunk of HP, along with the ability to lay down some strong elemental smack whenever non-Holy weaks are in play. The main problem, however, is that his full RD is twice as expensive as any other for a roughly equivalent net outcome once you look past the gobs of HP. You can literally dive two characters with the mote cost of diving Tyro.
If you find yourself always using Tyro as physical/support, or as magic, you can focus only on the physical or mage spheres accordingly, as there's basically no overlap.
Luneth
Triple broken: Yes (first wave) RD access: "The Unfinished Swordsman" (Onion) Native 5-star jobs: Dragoon Skill pool: 5* Combat, Dragoon; 4* Spellblade, Darkness; 3* Celerity, Support Skill upgrades: SPB -> 5; Darkness -> 5; Support -> 4
Stats by Lv HP ATK DEF MAG RES MND SPD
Lv 80 5542 171 157 95 89 98 134
Lv 99 6825 208 187 120 112 120 145
RD mod 800 37 5 - - - -
Sphere cost Vit Spi Wis Dex Brv Spheres
3* 90 30 30 - 75 Warrior, Knight, Red
4* 60 - 60 90 15 Spellblade, Warmage, Dragoon
Passives: SPB +6%; Darkness +6%; Dragoon +6%
This is Luneth as he will be by the time he gets RD. Note that all three of his 4* spheres are devoted to the passives at S.Lv 4 and 5, meaning that by not upgrading, you can save valuable orbs. And there are cases for doing just that. Darkness is arguably not worth for him; spellblade just becomes an AoE alternative to Sky High. And an edit to reword something. I'm a fan of Breakdown options in general (which is why I like Ingus among the knights.) On Luneth, given his already wide pool, it's almost a luxury; but you want to take it anyway, since his Dragoon damage boost is hidden behind it.
But oh, that reckless ATK boosting. That's so like Luneth.
Arc
Triple broken: Soon! (fourth wave) RD access: Feature-initial Native 5-star jobs: None Skill pool: 5* White, Summon; 3* Black Skill upgrades: None
Stats by Lv HP ATK DEF MAG RES MND SPD
Lv 80 4222 101 96 168 160 176 136
Lv 99 5200 124 121 203 191 210 149
RD mod 455 - 1 21 9 18 -
Sphere cost Vit Spi Wis Dex Brv Spheres
3* - 105 90 30 - White, Black, Bard
4* - 105 105 15 - Devout, Magus, Summoner
Passives: Black -> 4*; BLK +3%; WHT (healing) +9%; Silence resist.
The combination of Devout and Magus spheres creates a focused cost on Spirit and Wisdom motes. Black 4 doesn't actually give much to Arc long-term; while Ja Magics are nice, he can already full Summon. (Edit: On the other hand, Arc is unusual among White Summoners in that he doesn't boost SUM damage; instead, he has an odd boost to BLK damage. May as well take the Black 4 to exploit this better.) All in all, this is going to be fairly typical of white mage Dives.
Note that the WHT bonus does not affect his Soothing Light SB, as that is a rare example of a NAT medica.
Refia
Triple broken: Yes (second wave) RD access: Trial of the Five Native 5-star jobs: Monk, (Shooter) Skill pool: 5* Combat, Monk, Shooter; 4* Celerity Skill upgrades: Ninja 4
Stats by Lv HP ATK DEF MAG RES MND SPD
Lv 80 5275 169 99 103 116 118 159
Lv 99 6305 209 118 130 147 149 172
RD mod 735 35 12 - 4 - -
Sphere cost Vit Spi Wis Dex Brv Spheres
3* 60 - 30 75 60 Monk, Ranger, Thief
4* 90 - 15 60 75 Master Monk, Gladiator, Ninja
Passives: Monk +9%
Refia is unusual among monks in that she's NOT saddled with the Berserker Sphere; so your mote needs will be better balanced. Ninja 4 adds sleep and sap inflictors; it also adds the Ninja Magics, though this is less essential for her with strong fire and water coverage. The wind coverage from Gust may come in handy, at least.
So unlike her friends from Ur, she has no real "traps" on her Dive. Lifebane is worth considering, since she can use her default SB (or the ATK/DEF Bargain on her BSB, or her SSB) to self-boost in stackable ways to achieve its full power.
Ingus
Triple broken: Yes (fifth wave) RD access: Feature-initial Native 5-star jobs: Knight Skill pool: 5* Knight; 4* Support, Combat, White Skill upgrades: Samurai 3
Stats by Lv HP ATK DEF MAG RES MND SPD
Lv 80 6228 163 173 95 124 110 111
Lv 99 7670 200 206 120 157 135 120
RD mod 850 24 24 - 4 - -
Sphere cost Vit Spi Wis Dex Brv Spheres
3* 90 - - 30 105 Warrior, Knight, Ranger
4* 90 15 - 45 75 Paladin, Gladiator, Samurai
Passives: Knight +9%
The samurai access MAY be interesting if you want to tauntaliate; but his BSB enables the combo through its burst actions, so it's not essential. Nor is it really Ingus, who's best known for his Support option that had been unique among Knights before the MP games' knights started borrowing his tech. Neither Curilla nor Minfilia, however, can hope to match the staying power of a dived Ingus.
As for Aegis Strike: there are two sides to the story. On the one hand, he can certainly boost his DEF quite well, and use Holy gear; on the other, because his enspell is NOT holy, he can't amplify the damage that way.
Desch
Triple broken: No RD access: "The Unfinished Swordsman" Native 5-star jobs: Machinist Skill pool: 5* Black, Machinist; 4* Bard, Support; 3* Spellblade Skill upgrades: None
Stats by Lv HP ATK DEF MAG RES MND SPD
Lv 80 5015 153 113 179 128 85 136
Lv 99 - - - - - - -
RD mod 490 20 - 30 - - -
Sphere cost Vit Spi Wis Dex Brv Spheres
3* 45 55 80 - 45 Warrior, Red, Black
4* 45 25 80 45 30 Gladiator, Spellblade, Magus
Passives: BLK +9%; BLK +3% with sword; Lightning +3%
No frills or little chunks of DEF/RES here: this Dive is all about making Desch hit harder, whether with his physical options, or especially his preferred Black Magic. Lightning damage, while only 3%, is not a trap; it's his focused element, which he can enspell and/or imperil via his SBs.
Onion Knight
Triple broken: Yes (Unfinished Swordsman, essentially third wave) RD access: With character release. Native 5-star jobs: None Skill pool: 3* Combat, Celerity, Support, White, Black, Ninja Skill upgrades: All usable to 5
Stats by Lv HP ATK DEF MAG RES MND SPD
Lv 80 1131 38 24 39 24 37 117
Lv 99 6800 205 130 211 130 203 175
RD mod 660 40 10 33 3 24 -
Sphere cost Vit Spi Wis Dex Brv Spheres
3* 51 51 52 15 52 Knight, Warrior, Ranger, White, Black, Red
4* 62 52 59 22 27 Gladiator, Viking, Ninja, Magus, Devout, Sage
Onion also needs one Onion Mote for the S.Lv 1 of each sphere. His Sage has all three basic mage spheres as prereqs.
Passives: PHY+3% with sword; BLK+9%; WHT+9%.
The first thing to note about Onion's Dive is that, like Tyro's, there's a clean division between physical and magic; you can half-Dive him if you wish, focusing on him as a mage or a fighter. Given the massive burden of levelling him up - even with Eggs, he has a bad EXP curve - I'd consider this a binary question: if you plan on using Onion, then Dive him all the way. Why take half-measures?
The second, of course, is that unlike Tyro, Onion does not add a lot of staying power to his Dive. Instead, he goes for a very aggressive loadout which turns him into the bane of your enemies. Yet he's not a Glass Cannon when he does this, since 130 is actually not bad as a base DEF value.
Ninja 5 comes before Celerity 5 on the Ninja sphere, just in case that mattered for you.
submitted by Sandslice to FFRecordKeeper [link] [comments]

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